Gunhilda (Sigrid "the Haughty"), Queen of Svithjod, b. ca. 965 in Poznan, Poznan, Poland, d. aft. 2 February 1014
Father: Mieszko I, Prince of the Polanians, b. 935 in Poznan, Poznan, Poland, d. 25 May 992 in Poznan, Poznan, Poland, buried aft. 25 May 992 in Cathedral of St. Peter and St. Paul, Poznan, Poland
Mother: Dubravka the Czech, b. ca. 925 in Praha, Praha, Czechoslovakia, d. 977
Her Polish name was Sygryda Swietoslawa; we have used the Norse variation since it is the one most likely to be encountered. She is also believed to be the same person as Gunhilda, who is often listed as the wife of Sven I "Forkbeard". Also, her father is sometimes listed as Skoglar Toste, or the mythical "Burislav". Burislav is considered to be a combination of Miezko I and Boleslaw of Poland.
After she divorced from Erik, she was given Gotaland as a fife. Olaf Trygvasson proposed to her, but demanded that she convert to Christianity. This proposal insulted her, and she began to actively orchestrate Olaf's downfall by allying Sweden and Denmark against Norway. She was successful when Olaf fell in the Battle of Swold in 1000. She also had Harald Grenske burned to death to discourage other petty kings from proposing to her, thus earning the nickname "haughty".
Spouse: Erik VIII "the Victorious" Bjornsson, b. bef. 923 in Uppsala, Sweden, d. ca. 995 in Uppsala, Sweden, He became King of Sweden, ca. 970 in Uppsala, Sweden
Father: Bjorn "the Old" Eriksson, b. ca. 867 in Uppsala, Sweden, d. 923
He defeated Styrbjorn "The Strong" in the battle of Fyrisvallarna in 988. He is the first Swedish king whose existance can be verified. He ruled with his brother, Olof Bjornsson. When Olof died, a new co-ruler had to be appointed. The Swedes refused to accept his "rowdy" nephew, Styrbjörn Starke, and the controversy was settled when Erik suggested that the new co-ruler be his unborn child, provided it was a boy.
Erik conquered Denmark and chased away King Sven Forkbeard not long before his death. He is said to have been baptised in Denmark, but returned to the Norse gods.
He founded the town of Sigtuna, which is where the first Swedish coins were stamped for his son and successor, Olaf.
Married ca. 973.
Divorced bef. 993.
Spouse: Sven I "Forkbeard" King of Denmark, b. ca. 960 in Denmark, d. 3 February 1014 in Gainsborough, Lincolnshire, England, He became King of Denmark, 986 in Denmark, He became king of England, 25 December 1013 in England, buried aft. 3 February 1014 in Roskilde Cathedral, Denmark
Father: Harald I Bluetooth, King of Denmark, b. 910, d. 1 November 986, He became King of Denmark, 958 in Denmark, He became King of Norway, ca. 970 in Norway, buried aft. 986 in Roskilde Cathedral, Denmark
Mother: Gunhild Olafsdotter, b. 923 in Denmark
According to Adam of Bremen, Sven was driven out of Denmark by Erik the Victorious just before Erik's death in 994 or 995.
Following the death of Olaf I, King of Norway, in the Battle of Svoldr, Sven became ruler over part of Norway, with Eirik Hakonsson as his vassel. Sven was probably behind the raids on England from 1003 until 1012 following the St. Brice's Day Massacre of England's Danish inhabitants in November 1002. In 1013 he launched a full invasion.
Northumbria quickly bowed to him, followed by Lindsay and the Five Boroughs. Sven fought his way through England and soon approached London. It is said the the Londoners destroyed the bridges that crossed the Thames (London Bridge is falling down). Sven's army suffered heavy losses and was foced to withdraw. But Sven was accepted as ruler of England and, after Ethelred the Unready fled to Normandy, was crowned King on Christmas Day.
Sven's nickname, wich was probably used in his lifetime, refers to a long, pitchfork-like moustache, not to a full beard. Such a moustache was the fashion at the time, particularly in England.
Married 998 in Denmark.
Mieszko I, Prince of the Polanians, b. 935 in Poznan, Poznan, Poland, m. Oda von Haldensleben, 978, d. 25 May 992 in Poznan, Poznan, Poland, buried aft. 25 May 992 in Cathedral of St. Peter and St. Paul, Poznan, Poland
Father: Ziemomysl, Prince of the Polanians, b. ca. 892 in Poznan, Poznan, Poland, d. bef. 964
Mieszko became the first recorded ruler of Poland in about 960. Either from the influence of his Christian first wife or to avoid conflict with the Holy Roman Empire, Miesko was baptised in 966. He then built a church dedicated to Saint George at Gniezno, and in 968 founded the first Polish cathedral in Poznan dedicated to Saint Peter. Those events are referred to as the baptism of Poland.
During Miesko's reign there was no capital, but he built several castles around his country. Shortly before his death Miesko placed Poland under the suzerainty of the Pope in a document called the Dagome Iudex. The document indexes the lands of Miesko, called "Dagome" in the document, and his wife, former nun Oda, and her sons by him.
Miesko was not his real name, but one given to him later. As the father of Gunhilda (Sigrid "the Haughty"), Queen of Svithjod he is often called Skoglar or Skagul Toste, a name which refers to his experience in battle.
Father: Boleslav I "The Cruel", Duke of Bohemia, b. ca. 900 in Bohemia, d. 15 July 967 in Bohemia, He became Duke of Bohemia 929 in Bohemia
Mother: Bozena, Duchess of Bohemia, b. ca. 901 in Praha, Praha, Czechoslovakia
Ziemomysl, Prince of the Polanians, b. ca. 892 in Poznan, Poznan, Poland, d. bef. 964
Father: Leszek IV, Prince of the Polanians, b. ca. 865 in Poznan, Poznan, Poland, d. 921
Leszek IV, Prince of the Polanians, b. ca. 865 in Poznan, Poznan, Poland, d. 921
Father: Ziemowit, Prince of the Polanians, b. ca. 835 in Poznan, Poznan, Poland, d. 892
Ziemowit, Prince of the Polanians, b. ca. 835 in Poznan, Poznan, Poland, d. 892
Father: Chosciszko, Duke of the Polanians, b. ca. 813 in Poznan, Poznan, Poland
Some claim his father is Piast, who created the first Polish dynasty in the ninth century. Piast was of the Polani family; Polani means "field people."
Chosciszko, Duke of the Polanians, b. ca. 813 in Poznan, Poznan, Poland